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On the Instability of Amalgams

- Abstract

- Introduction

- Micro structure

- Types of dental amalgams

- Formation of droplets...

- Increased mercury emission...

- References

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The symbiosis between the dental and industrial communities and their scientific journals

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  On the Instability of Amalgams...cont. - References


1 Gjerdet N R, Hegdahl T: Porosity, strength, and mercury content of amalgam made by different dentists in their own practice.
Dent Mater 1985; 1:150-153.
2 Combe E C: Notes on dental materials. Churchill Livingstone, Medical division of Longman Group UK Ltd, London, 1986.
3 Jørgensen K D: Dentale Amalgamer.
Odontologisk Boghandels Forlag, København 1976.
4 Vrijhoef M M A, Vermeersch A G, Spanauf A J: Dental Amalgam.
Quintessence Publishing Co., Inc, Chicago 1980.
5 WHO/FAO Expert Committee. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.
Technical report series No 505. Geneva: WHO, 1972.
6 Skare I, Engqvist A: Human exposure to mercury and silver released from dental amalgam restorations.
Archives of Environmental Health 1994; 49:384-394.
7 Mahler D B, Adey J D: Sn in the Ag-Hg phase of dental amalgam.
J Dent Res 1988; 67:1275-1277.
8 Mahler D B, Adey J D, Fleming M A: Hg emission from dental amalgam as related to the amount of Sn in the Ag-Hg (g1) phase.
J Dent Res 1994; 73:1663-1668.
9 Jensen S J, Jørgensen K D: Dimensional and phase changes of dental amalgams.
Scand J Dent Res 1985; 93:351-356.
10 Mahler DB, Adey JD, Eysden J van: Transformation of g1 in clinical amalgam restorations. IADR Abstracts, #190, 1973.
11 Gjerdet NR, Berge M. Liberation of copper, zinc, and cadmium from different amalgams. Acta Odontol Scand 1983;41:217-220.
12 Ørstavik D: Antibacterial properties of and element release from some dental amalgams.
Acta Odontol Scand 1985; 43:231-239.
13 Furseth Klinge R: The ultrastructure of copper amalgam-covered dentin from human deciduous teeth.
Acta Odontol Scand 1993; 51:223-228.
14 Brune D, Gjerdet N, Paulsen G: Gastrointestinal and in vitro release of copper, cadmium, indium, mercury and zinc from conventional and copper-rich amalgams.
Scand J Dent Res 1983; 91:66-71.
15 Sauerwein E: Zahnerhaltungskunde, Ed. 5.
Georg Thieme Verlag. Stuttgart, 1985.
16 Hegdahl T: Innhold av kadmium i amalgam (Presence of cadmium in amalgam).
University of Bergen, January 14, 1981.
17 Mjør I A: Kadmium i kopperamalgam (Cadmium in copper amalgam).
NIOM, Jnr. 51/81, February 3, 1981.
18 Røynesdal K, Statens Helsetilsyn. Dentala Biomaterialer: NIOM's lister over sertifiserte produkter 1994-95 - fremtidig godkjenningsordning etter EU-direktiv - registrering av biverkninger og krav til journalføring.
Rundskriv Nr. IK-11/94. Saknr. 94/02832 2 KRø/MF. 1. mars 1994.
19 Chuev V P, Pobochina V V, Chechina G N: [The working conditions of medical personnel handling the SMTA brand copper amalgam.]
Stomatologiia (Mosk), 73: 3, 1994 Jul-Sep, 65-68.
20 Pobochina V V, Chuev V P: [A finely dispersed copper alloy for amalgams - a prospective filling material in pediatric dentistry. II. Clinical research].
Stomatologiia (Mosk), 73: 3, 1994 Jul-Sep, 62-65.
21 Skinner E W, Phillips R W: The science of dental materials.
WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia and London, 1967.
22 Marshall G W, Finkelstein G F, Greener E H: Microstructures of several Cu rich dental amalgams.
J Dent Res 1975; 54: Issue A, Abstract 550.
23 Black G V: The physical properties of the silver-tin amalgams.
Dent. Cosmos 1896; 38:965.
24 Alloy for dental amalgam. ISO 1559.
First edition 1978-11-15.
25 Olsson S, Berglund A, Bergman M: Release of elements due to electrochemical corrosion of dental amalgam.
J Dent Res 1994; 73:33-43.
26 Innes, Youdelis: Dispersion Strengthened Amalgams.
J. Can. Dent Assoc. 29, 587.
27 Alloy for dental amalgam. ISO 1559.
Second edition 1986-06-15.
28 Biological evaluation of dental materials. ISO/TR 7405.
1984.
29 Rehberg H J, et al.
IADR Abstracts, #518, 1976.
30 Schneider P E, Sarkar N K: Mercury release from Dispersalloy amalgam.
IADR Abstract 630, 1982.
31 Sarkar N: Amalgamation reaction of Dispersalloy - Reexamined.
IADR Abstracts #217, 1991.
32 Sarkar N K, et al.
IADR Abstracts, #895, 1976.
33 Mateer R S, et al.
IADR Abstracts, #240, 1977.
34 Sarkar N K, et al.
IADR Abstracts, #358, 1978.
35 Rupp N W, et al.
IADR Abstracts, #356, 1979.
36 Mueller H J: Dynamic loading of dental amalgam and effects upon electrochemistry and microstructure.
Biomat., Med. Dev., Art. Org. 1984; 12:75-93.
37 Indiloy - the advanced alloy for amalgam.Shofu Dental Corporation. Brochure.
38 Pleva J: Mercury - A Public Health Hazard.
Reviews on Environmental Health 1994; 10:1-27.
39 Nerø H, Jørgensen R B: Flow stress and deformation hardening of triturated amalgam.
Dent Mater; 1985:145-149.
40 Lehtinen B. ATEM undersökning av amalgam. (ATEM investigation of amalgam). Institutet för Metallforskning (Swedish Institute for Metals Research). 1985-05-05.
41 Toomväli C. Studier angående avgivning av kvicksilverånga från olika dentala amalgam vid mekanisk belastning i luft, kvävgas och argon. (Studies of mercury vapor emission from different dental amalgams subjected to mechanical loading i air, nitrogen and argon). LiU-IFM-Kemi-Ex 150, 1988.
42 Roggenkamp CL. A history of copper in amalgam and an overview of setting reaction phases. Quintessence International 1986;17:129-133.
43 Berglund, A: An in vitro and in vivo study of the release of mercury vapor from different types of amalgam alloys.
J Dent Res 1993; 72:939-946.
44 Boyer D B: Mercury vaporization from corroded dental amalgam.
Dent Mater 1988; 4:89-93.
45 Psarras V, Derand T, Nilner K: Effect of selenium on mercury vapor released from dental amalgams: An in vitro study.
Swed Dent J 1994; 18:15-23.
46 Ferracane J L, Adey J D, et al.: Mercury vaporization from amalgams with varied alloy composition.
J Dent Res 1995; 74:1414-1417.
47 Moberg L E: Long-term corrosion studies in vitro of amalgams and casting alloys in contact.
Acta Odontol Scand 1985; 43:163-177.
48 Moberg L E: Corrosion products from dental alloys and effects of mercuric and cupric ions on a neuroeffector system.
Stockholm: Diss, 1985.

 


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